U=U: A guide for service providers


Where can I find out more?

CATIE resources

CATIE statement on the use of antiretroviral treatment to maintain an undetectable viral load as a highly effective strategy to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV

HIV treatment and an undetectable viral load to prevent HIV transmission — Fact Sheet

Can’t pass it on key messages series

The power of undetectable: what you need to know about HIV treatment as prevention — Client Resource

Couples HIV testing and counselling

Guidelines, position papers and consensus statements

Risk of sexual transmission of HIV from a person with HIV who has an undetectable viral load: Messaging primer & consensus statement – Prevention Access Campaign

A guide for clinicians to discuss U=U — Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine

Community consensus statement on access to HIV treatment and its use for prevention – AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC, NAM/aidsmap

Expert consensus: viral load and risk of HIV transmission – Institut National de Santé Publique du Quebec (INSPQ)

Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations – World Health Organization (WHO)

U=U position statement — Gay Men’s Sexual Health Alliance of Ontario (GMSH)

Undetectable = Untransmittable; A community brief — International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO)

Living in the asterisk (*): What does U=U mean for women? — Women & HIV/AIDS Initiative (WHAI).

HIV disclosure

The criminalization of HIV non-disclosure in Canada: current status and the need for change (2019) — Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network

Expert consensus statement on the science of HIV in the context of criminal law (2018) — Journal of the International AIDS Society

Community consensus statement (2019) – Canadian Coalition to Reform Criminalization

Criminal justice system’s response to non-disclosure of HIV (2017) — Department of Justice, Government of Canada

Sexual offences against adults (2017) — Ontario Crown Prosecution Manual

Sexual transmission, or realistic possibility of transmission, of HIV (2018) — British Columbia Prosecution Service Crown Counsel Policy Manual

HIV disclosure to sexual partners: Question and answers for newcomers (2015) — Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network

Now what? The possibilities of disclosure: a guide by HIV positive people for AIDS Service Organizations and their allies — Ontario AIDS Network, Positive Leadership Development Institute (PLDI)


This guide was originally developed by the Ontario AIDS Network. CATIE has adapted it for a national audience.

Download the accompanying toolkit here.